Mycoflora of Fungal Contamination in Wheat Storage (Silos) in Golestan Province, North of Iran

AUTHORS

Hamidreza Joshaghani 1 , Mohadeseh Namjoo 2 , Masoumeh Rostami 3 , Faramarz Kohsar 4 , Farhad Niknejad 2 , *

1 Golestan Research Center of Gastero Enterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Gorgan, IR Iran

2 Faculty of Paramedicine and Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran

3 Faculty of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran

4 Faculty of Paramedicine and Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran

How to Cite: Joshaghani H, Namjoo M, Rostami M, Kohsar F, Niknejad F. Mycoflora of Fungal Contamination in Wheat Storage (Silos) in Golestan Province, North of Iran, Jundishapur J Microbiol. Online ahead of Print ; 6(4):6334. doi: 10.5812/jjm.6334.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology: 6 (4); 6334
Published Online: June 9, 2013
Article Type: Research Article
Received: May 12, 2012
Accepted: July 10, 2012
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Abstract

Background: Cereal products are susceptible to mould damage during pre- and post-harvesting stages of the production. The regional specificity of Golestan province in the northern region of of Iran, with its high temperature and high relative humidity, acts as a leading factor for the growth of aflatoxin-producing fungi. It is well known that contamination of starch-based ingredients with mycotoxigenic fungi is a risk factor among the consumers due to its aflatoxins.

Objectives: This survey was carried out to determine the extent of fungal contamination of wheat in three silos of Golestan province in Iran.

Materials and Methods: 34 samples from three active silos were collected in order to clean the polyethylene bags. Wheat analyzed for fungal contamination and aflatoxins extracted by immunoaffinity column chromatography, and measured by HPLC method.

Results: The most common moulds isolated were Alternaria spp. 26.7%, Aspergillus niger 21.4%, Fusarium spp. 17.8%, Aspergillus flavus 10.7%, Cladosporium spp. 10.7%, Penicillium spp. 8.9%, and Rhizopus spp. 3.5%. The screening of aflatoxin, B1, B2, G1 and G2 was carried out. 10(29.4%) samples of wheat had traces of aflatoxin, but in a level lower than the standard levels [Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIR< 15 ng/g)].

Conclusions: Despite the lower detected aflatoxin levels (lower than the ISIR level), the fungal contamination rate could not be neglected. Since the isolated mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. are important in food industry, it would be possible that the increased retention time of samples might have raised the detected contamination rate.

Keywords

Wheat Fungal Contamination Aflatoxin

© 2013, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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