Marked Changes in NAMPT Expression, CRP and D-Dimer Levels Were Associated with type 2 Diabetes and those who were Previously Infected with COVID-19.

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Muna M.Kadhim, Zainab N. Al-Abady


As our understanding grows, it has been demonstrated that the metabolism of many biomolecules and immune responses can be clearly studied. via delving deeply into the relationship between intracellular NAD levels and immune responses. NAD has been shown to play an important role as a substrate for several NAD-dependent signaling enzymes (both degrading and synthesis enzymes) and has been linked to a variety of diseases, including diabetes and COVID 19. In this study, we looked at the expression of the main NAD-synthesizing enzyme (NAMPT), as well as D-Dimer and C-reactive protein levels in serum. This study included one hundred participants: twenty-five patients with type 2 diabetes who recovered from COVID 19, twenty-five type 2 diabetic patients who were not infected with COVID-19, and twenty-five people who recovered from COVID 19 but were not diabetic compared to twenty-five controls. NAMPT levels were determined using quantitative PCR; C-reactive protein levels as well as D-Dimer were determined using competitive fluorescent immunoassay technology. The results revealed a decrease in the expression levels of NAD-homeostasis enzyme (NAMPT), whileC-reactive protein and D-Dimer levels increased, in addition to the change in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity. These findings suggest that low NAD+ levels during infection may be associated with an inflammatory response as well as During infection with COVID 19, diabetes patients had elevated C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels.

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