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There are number of alterations in carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins and electrolytes metabolism in Critically ill patients which are usually proportional to the severity of illness leading to increased energy requirement and protein catabolism, also results in alterations of the immune system, the body composition, gastro intestinal tract functions and muscles. The metabolic response which occur as a result of injury mobilizes amino acids from lean tissues to support wound healing, immune response and accelerated protein synthesis for healing processes. Malnutrition is considered to be an independent risk factor for higher morbidity, increased length of hospital stay, delayed recovery, higher readmission rates, lower quality of life, higher hospital costs and higher mortality.
During critical illness, nutritional modulation of the stress response includes early enteral nutrition, appropriate macro- and micronutrient delivery, and meticulous glycemic control. Providing early nutrition support therapy, primarily using the enteral route, is seen as a proactive therapeutic strategy that may reduce disease severity, decrease length of stay in the ICU, diminish complications, and favorably impact patient outcome.