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To some extent, the survival of an organism depends on its ability to detect and adapt to changes in its environment on-the-fly. Living organisms have mechanisms for adapting to changes in their environment. To give one example of the well-known "fight or flight" reaction, a rush of adrenaline occurs when mammals perceive an abrupt change in their surroundings as hazardous.Physiological stress reactions in complex organisms necessitate the proper regulation of interactions between multiple organ systems. It is hoped that pinpointing specific processes that contribute to microbial survival under rapidly changing environments may provide light on the stress response systems of other organisms.pH, temperature, and nutrient scarcity are just a few of the environmental signals that cause bacteria to adapt to stressful conditions. They also direct the expression of virulence genes when and where it's most appropriate. Stress reactions and their management are consequently critical for an understanding of how germs cause disease.