Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

Published by: Kowsar

Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes Among Chronically Infected Patients in Pakistan

Shahroz Khan 1 , * , Ijaz Ali 2 , Malik Badshah 1 , Qaiser Mohammad Khan 3 , Zahida Nasreen Haider 3 , Sajid Ali 4 , Imtiaz Ali Khan 5 and Anwar Ullah 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
3 Biotech Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories Rawalpindi Pakistan, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan
4 Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
5 Department of Entomology, University of Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology: March 31, 2019, 12 (3); e86428
  • Published Online: March 18, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 15, 2018
  • Revised: February 2, 2019
  • Accepted: February 5, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/jjm.86428

To Cite: Khan S, Ali I, Badshah M, Khan Q M, Haider Z N, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes Among Chronically Infected Patients in Pakistan, Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2019 ; 12(3):e86428. doi: 10.5812/jjm.86428.

Copyright © 2019, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Butt S, Idrees M, Akbar H, ur Rehman I, Awan Z, Afzal S, et al. The changing epidemiology pattern and frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus in Pakistan. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10(5):595-600. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2010.04.012. [PubMed: 20438863].
  • 2. Idrees M, Rafique S, Rehman I, Akbar H, Yousaf MZ, Butt S, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a infection and hepatocellular carcinoma: Pakistan experience. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(40):5080-5. doi: 10.3748/wjg.15.5080. [PubMed: 19860002]. [PubMed Central: PMC2768888].
  • 3. Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(17):2436-41. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v13.i17.2436. [PubMed: 17552026]. [PubMed Central: PMC4146761].
  • 4. Hatzakis A, Wait S, Bruix J, Buti M, Carballo M, Cavaleri M, et al. The state of hepatitis B and C in Europe: Report from the hepatitis B and C summit conference*. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18 Suppl 1:1-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2011.01499.x. [PubMed: 21824223].
  • 5. Zein NN, Rakela J, Krawitt EL, Reddy KR, Tominaga T, Persing DH. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in the United States: epidemiology, pathogenicity, and response to interferon therapy. Collaborative Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125(8):634-9. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-125-8-199610150-00002. [PubMed: 8849147].
  • 6. Nousbaum JB, Pol S, Nalpas B, Landais P, Berthelot P, Brechot C. Hepatitis C virus type 1b (II) infection in France and Italy. Collaborative Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(3):161-8. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-122-3-199502010-00001. [PubMed: 7810932].
  • 7. Simmonds P. Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus--15 years on. J Gen Virol. 2004;85(Pt 11):3173-88. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.80401-0. [PubMed: 15483230].
  • 8. Ramia S, Eid-Fares J. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in the Middle East. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10(4):272-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2005.07.008. [PubMed: 16564719].
  • 9. Pawlotsky JM. Mechanisms of antiviral treatment efficacy and failure in chronic hepatitis C. Antiviral Res. 2003;59(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/S0166-3542(03)00088-3. [PubMed: 12834855].
  • 10. Afridi SQ, Zahid MN, Shabbir MZ, Hussain Z, Mukhtar N, Tipu MY, et al. Prevalence of HCV genotypes in district Mardan. Virol J. 2013;10:90. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-90. [PubMed: 23514695]. [PubMed Central: PMC3616848].
  • 11. Idrees M, Riazuddin S. Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:69. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-69. [PubMed: 18498666]. [PubMed Central: PMC2409346].
  • 12. Waqar M, Khan AU, Rehman HU, Idrees M, Wasim M, Ali A, et al. Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes circulating in different districts of Punjab (Pakistan). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;26(1):59-64. doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e328362dc3f. [PubMed: 23743560].
  • 13. Idrees M. Development of an improved genotyping assay for the detection of hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes in Pakistan. J Virol Methods. 2008;150(1-2):50-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2008.03.001. [PubMed: 18423633].
  • 14. Waheed Y, Shafi T, Safi SZ, Qadri I. Hepatitis C virus in Pakistan: A systematic review of prevalence, genotypes and risk factors. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(45):5647-53. doi: 10.3748/wjg.15.5647. [PubMed: 19960560]. [PubMed Central: PMC2789216].
  • 15. Hamid S, Umar M, Alam A, Siddiqui A, Qureshi H, Butt J, et al. PSG consensus statement on management of hepatitis C virus infection--2003. J Pak Med Assoc. 2004;54(3):146-50. [PubMed: 15129876].
  • 16. Ali S, Ali I, Azam S, Ahmad B. Frequency distribution of HCV genotypes among chronic hepatitis C patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Virol J. 2011;8:193. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-193. [PubMed: 21521506]. [PubMed Central: PMC3113302].
  • 17. Khan N, Akmal M, Hayat M, Umar M, Ullah A, Ahmed I, et al. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in pakistan. Hepat Mon. 2014;14(10). e20299. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.20299. [PubMed: 25477975]. [PubMed Central: PMC4250967].
  • 18. Attaullah S, Khan S, Ali I. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Pakistan: A systemic review. Virol J. 2011;8:433. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-433. [PubMed: 21902822]. [PubMed Central: PMC3178528].
  • 19. Afzal MS, Khan MY, Ammar M, Anjum S, Zaidi NU. Diagnostically untypable hepatitis C virus variants: It is time to resolve the problem. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(46):17690-2. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i46.17690. [PubMed: 25516688]. [PubMed Central: PMC4265635].
  • 20. Idrees M, Ahmed H, Sajid ul G, Ali M, Ali L; Inamullah, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes circulating in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw, Pakistan. Virol J. 2011;8:16. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-16. [PubMed: 21235746]. [PubMed Central: PMC3027131].
  • 21. Khan S, Attaullah S, Ayaz S, Niaz Khan S, Shams S, Ali I, et al. Molecular epidemiology of hcv among health care workers of khyber pakhtunkhwa. Virol J. 2011;8:105. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-105. [PubMed: 21385397]. [PubMed Central: PMC3060846].
  • 22. Butt S, Idrees M, Ur Rehman I, Akbar H, Shahid M, Afzal S, et al. Mixed genotype infections with hepatitis C virus, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1565-7. doi: 10.3201/eid1708.100950. [PubMed: 21801655]. [PubMed Central: PMC3381542].
  • 23. ur Rehman L, Ullah I, Ali I, Khan IA, Iqbal A, Khan S, et al. Active hepatitis C infection and HCV genotypes prevalent among the IDUs of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Virol J. 2011;8:327. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-327. [PubMed: 21711541]. [PubMed Central: PMC3148566].
  • 24. Wahid B, Waqar M, Rasool N, Rehman Z, Saeed J, Wasim M, et al. Recent trends in molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus in Mardan, KPK Pakistan. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;66:66-71. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.09.003. [PubMed: 30201500].
  • 25. Abdulkarim AS, Zein NN, Germer JJ, Kolbert CP, Kabbani L, Krajnik KL, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes and hepatitis G virus in hemodialysis patients from Syria: Identification of two novel hepatitis C virus subtypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;59(4):571-6. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1998.59.571. [PubMed: 9790432].
  • 26. Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2014;61(1 Suppl):S45-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2014.07.027. [PubMed: 25086286].
  • 27. Idrees M, Lal A, Naseem M, Khalid M. High prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the largest province of Pakistan. J Dig Dis. 2008;9(2):95-103. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-2980.2008.00329.x. [PubMed: 18419643].
  • 28. Ali A, Nisar M, Ahmad H, Saif N, Idrees M, Bajwa MA. Determination of HCV genotypes and viral loads in chronic HCV infected patients of Hazara Pakistan. Virol J. 2011;8:466. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-466. [PubMed: 21982599]. [PubMed Central: PMC3198714].
  • 29. Rasheed A, Ullah S, Naeem S, Zubair M, Ahmad W, Hussain Z. Occurrence of HCV genotypes in different age groups of patients from Lahore, Pakistan. Adv Life Sci. 2014;1(2):89-95.
  • 30. Umer M, Iqbal M. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotype distribution in Pakistan: Comprehensive review of recent data. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22(4):1684-700. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i4.1684. [PubMed: 26819533]. [PubMed Central: PMC4721999].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments