Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

Published by: Kowsar

Herpes Simplex Virus and Tuberculosis-Associated Encephalitis in Northeast of Iran

Raheleh Miri 1 , Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht 1 , Vajiheh Mohamadinezhad 2 , Arman Mosavat 1 , Seyed Aliakbar Shamsian 3 , Faezeh Sabet 2 , Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee 2 , * and Payam Sasannejad 4 , **
Authors Information
1 Blood Borne Infections Research Center, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran
2 Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4 Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Corresponding Authors:
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology: February 28, 2019, 12 (2); e83452
  • Published Online: February 16, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: August 19, 2018
  • Revised: January 9, 2019
  • Accepted: January 16, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/jjm.83452

To Cite: Miri R , Ahmadi Ghezeldasht S , Mohamadinezhad V , Mosavat A, Shamsian S A, et al. Herpes Simplex Virus and Tuberculosis-Associated Encephalitis in Northeast of Iran, Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2019 ; 12(2):e83452. doi: 10.5812/jjm.83452.

Abstract
Copyright © 2019, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Tunkel AR, Glaser CA, Bloch KC, Sejvar JJ, Marra CM, Roos KL, et al. The management of encephalitis: Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(3):303-27. doi: 10.1086/589747. [PubMed: 18582201].
  • 2. Stone MJ, Hawkins CP. A medical overview of encephalitis. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2007;17(4-5):429-49. doi: 10.1080/09602010601069430. [PubMed: 17676529].
  • 3. Imran D, Estiasari R, Maharani K, Lestari DC, Yunus RE; Sucipto, et al. Presentation, etiology, and outcome of brain infections in an Indonesian hospital: A cohort study. Neurol Clin Pract. 2018;8(5):379-88. doi: 10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000517. [PubMed: 30564491]. [PubMed Central: PMC6276332].
  • 4. Glaser CA, Honarmand S, Anderson LJ, Schnurr DP, Forghani B, Cossen CK, et al. Beyond viruses: Clinical profiles and etiologies associated with encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(12):1565-77. doi: 10.1086/509330. [PubMed: 17109290].
  • 5. Koskiniemi M, Rantalaiho T, Piiparinen H, von Bonsdorff CH, Farkkila M, Jarvinen A, et al. Infections of the central nervous system of suspected viral origin: A collaborative study from Finland. J Neurovirol. 2001;7(5):400-8. doi: 10.1080/135502801753170255. [PubMed: 11582512].
  • 6. Granerod J, Ambrose HE, Davies NW, Clewley JP, Walsh AL, Morgan D, et al. Causes of encephalitis and differences in their clinical presentations in England: A multicentre, population-based prospective study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10(12):835-44. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70222-X. [PubMed: 20952256].
  • 7. Tyler KL. Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system: Encephalitis and meningitis, including Mollaret's. Herpes. 2004;11 Suppl 2:57A-64A. [PubMed: 15319091].
  • 8. Gnann JJ, Skoldenberg B, Hart J, Aurelius E, Schliamser S, Studahl M, et al. Herpes simplex encephalitis: Lack of clinical benefit of long-term valacyclovir therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(5):683-91. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ369. [PubMed: 25956891]. [PubMed Central: PMC4542890].
  • 9. Kennedy PG. Viral encephalitis: Causes, differential diagnosis, and management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75 Suppl 1:i10-5. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2003.034280. [PubMed: 14978145]. [PubMed Central: PMC1765650].
  • 10. Alessandro L, Wilken M, Farez MF, Arias Cebollada E, Mora AC, Cammarota A, et al. Clinical correlations of positive herpes simplex pcr in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurologist. 2018;23(6):204-8. doi: 10.1097/NRL.0000000000000215. [PubMed: 30379746].
  • 11. Ibrahim AI, Obeid MT, Jouma MJ, Roemer K, Mueller-Lantzsch N, Gartner BC. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2), varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 6 and 7 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of Middle Eastern patients with encephalitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(8):4172-4. doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.8.4172-4174.2005. [PubMed: 16081968]. [PubMed Central: PMC1233955].
  • 12. Ramirez KA, Choudhri AF, Patel A, Lenny NT, Thompson RE, Berkelhammer Greenberg L, et al. Comparing molecular quantification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with quantitative structural and functional disease severity in patients with HSV encephalitis (HSVE): Implications for improved therapeutic approaches. J Clin Virol. 2018;107:29-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2018.08.005. [PubMed: 30170224].
  • 13. Lincoln EM, Sordillo VR, Davies PA. Tuberculous meningitis in children. A review of 167 untreated and 74 treated patients with special reference to early diagnosis. J Pediatr. 1960;57(6):807-23. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3476(60)80132-1. [PubMed: 13762229].
  • 14. Rock RB, Olin M, Baker CA, Molitor TW, Peterson PK. Central nervous system tuberculosis: Pathogenesis and clinical aspects. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(2):243-61. table of contents. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00042-07. [PubMed: 18400795]. [PubMed Central: PMC2292571].
  • 15. Leonard JM. Central nervous system tuberculosis. Microbiol Spectr. 2017;5(2). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0044-2017. [PubMed: 28281443].
  • 16. Franco J, Blanquer R. Mortality from tuberculosis in Spain from 1970 to 1993: Changes in epidemiological trends during the acquired immune-deficiency syndrome epidemic. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1998;2(8):663-9. [PubMed: 9712281].
  • 17. Lu TH, Huang RM, Chang TD, Tsao SM, Wu TC. Tuberculosis mortality trends in Taiwan: A resurgence of non-respiratory tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9(1):105-10. [PubMed: 15682523].
  • 18. Rios-Sarabia N, Hernandez-Gonzalez O, Gonzalez YJ, Gordillo G, Vazquez-Rosales G, Munoz-Perez L, et al. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis using nested PCR. Int J Mol Med. 2016;38(4):1289-95. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2016.2698. [PubMed: 27499078].
  • 19. Roux A, Houcke S, Sanna A, Mathien C, Mayence C, Gueneau R, et al. Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcome of encephalitis in French Guiana. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019;100(2):452-9. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0308. [PubMed: 30560767].
  • 20. Riahi F, Derakhshan M, Mosavat A, Soleimanpour S, Rezaee SA. Evaluation of point mutation detection in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with isoniazid resistance using real-time PCR and TaqMan probe assay. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2015;175(5):2447-55. doi: 10.1007/s12010-014-1442-9. [PubMed: 25503088].
  • 21. Lakeman FD, Whitley RJ. Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis: Application of polymerase chain reaction to cerebrospinal fluid from brain-biopsied patients and correlation with disease. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1995;171(4):857-63. doi: 10.1093/infdis/171.4.857. [PubMed: 7706811].
  • 22. Puchhammer-Stockl E, Heinz FX, Kundi M, Popow-Kraupp T, Grimm G, Millner MM, et al. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31(1):146-8. [PubMed: 8380180]. [PubMed Central: PMC262639].
  • 23. Aurelius E, Johansson B, Skoldenberg B, Staland A, Forsgren M. Rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis by nested polymerase chain reaction assay of cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet. 1991;337(8735):189-92. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(91)92155-U. [PubMed: 1670839].
  • 24. Boivin G. Diagnosis of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system. Herpes. 2004;11 Suppl 2:48A-56A. [PubMed: 15319090].
  • 25. Raschilas F, Wolff M, Delatour F, Chaffaut C, De Broucker T, Chevret S, et al. Outcome of and prognostic factors for herpes simplex encephalitis in adult patients: Results of a multicenter study. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(3):254-60. doi: 10.1086/341405. [PubMed: 12115090].
  • 26. Riera-Mestre A, Gubieras L, Martinez-Yelamos S, Cabellos C, Fernandez-Viladrich P. Adult herpes simplex encephalitis: Fifteen years' experience. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2009;27(3):143-7. doi: 10.1016/j.eimc.2008.05.006. [PubMed: 19306713].
  • 27. Arvin AC, Mocarski E, Moore PS, Roizman B, Whitley R, Yamanishi K. Persistence in the population: Epidemiology, transmission. In: Wald A, Corey L, editors. Human herpesviruses: Biology, therapy, and immunoprophylaxis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2007. p. 656-72. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511545313.037.
  • 28. Mailles A, Stahl JP, Steering C, Investigators G. Infectious encephalitis in france in 2007: A national prospective study. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(12):1838-47. doi: 10.1086/648419. [PubMed: 19929384].
  • 29. Ambrose HE, Granerod J, Clewley JP, Davies NW, Keir G, Cunningham R, et al. Diagnostic strategy used to establish etiologies of encephalitis in a prospective cohort of patients in England. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(10):3576-83. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00862-11. [PubMed: 21865429]. [PubMed Central: PMC3187347].
  • 30. Lee TC, Tsai CP, Yuan CL, Wei CY, Tsao WL, Lee RJ, et al. Encephalitis in Taiwan: A prospective hospital-based study. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003;56(5-6):193-9. [PubMed: 14695429].
  • 31. Ziyaeyan M, Alborzi A, Borhani Haghighi A, Jamalidoust M, Moeini M, Pourabbas B. Diagnosis and quantitative detection of HSV DNA in samples from patients with suspected herpes simplex encephalitis. Braz J Infect Dis. 2011;15(3):211-4. doi: 10.1590/S1413-86702011000300005. [PubMed: 21670919].
  • 32. Barari Sawadkoh R, Ahmadpour-Kacho M. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and outcomes of children with herpetic encephalitis in Amirkola Children Hospital, Northern Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2010;12(5):568-71.
  • 33. Garg RK. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system. Postgrad Med J. 1999;75(881):133-40. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.75.881.133. [PubMed: 10448488]. [PubMed Central: PMC1741157].
  • 34. Haldar S, Sharma N, Gupta VK, Tyagi JS. Efficient diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in cerebrospinal fluid filtrates using PCR. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58(Pt 5):616-24. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.006015-0. [PubMed: 19369523].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments