Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

Published by: Kowsar

Increasing Prevalence of Aminoglycoside-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolates Due to the aac(6’)-aph(2”) Gene: A Therapeutic Problem in Kermanshah, Iran

Mitra Khani 1 , Mahdie Fatollahzade 1 , Hamid Pajavand 2 , Somaye Bakhtiari 2 and Ramin Abiri 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of General Practitioner Training, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology: March 2016, 9 (3); e60037
  • Published Online: March 12, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: April 8, 2015
  • Revised: December 2, 2015
  • Accepted: December 23, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/jjm.28923

To Cite: Khani M, Fatollahzade M, Pajavand H, Bakhtiari S, Abiri R. Increasing Prevalence of Aminoglycoside-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolates Due to the aac(6’)-aph(2”) Gene: A Therapeutic Problem in Kermanshah, Iran, Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2016 ; 9(3):e60037. doi: 10.5812/jjm.28923.

Copyright © 2016, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. El-Amin NM, Faidah HS. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. Prevalence and risk factors for fecal carriage in patients at tertiary care hospitals. Saudi Med J. 2011; 32(9): 966-7[PubMed]
  • 2. Kau AL, Martin SM, Lyon W, Hayes E, Caparon MG, Hultgren SJ. Enterococcus faecalis tropism for the kidneys in the urinary tract of C57BL/6J mice. Infect Immun. 2005; 73(4): 2461-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Kristich CJ, Rice LB, Arias CA. Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. 2014; [PubMed]
  • 4. Olawale KO, Fadiora SO, Taiwo SS. Prevalence of hospital-acquired enterococci infections in two primary-care hospitals in osogbo, southwestern Nigeria. Afr J Infect Dis. 2011; 5(2): 40-6[PubMed]
  • 5. Shaw KJ, Rather PN, Hare RS, Miller GH. Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Microbiol Rev. 1993; 57(1): 138-63[PubMed]
  • 6. Simjee S, Gill MJ. Gene transfer, gentamicin resistance and enterococci. J Hosp Infect. 1997; 36(4): 249-59[PubMed]
  • 7. Dupont H, Friggeri A, Touzeau J, Airapetian N, Tinturier F, Lobjoie E, et al. Enterococci increase the morbidity and mortality associated with severe intra-abdominal infections in elderly patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011; 166(10): 2379-85[DOI]
  • 8. Woodford N, Reynolds R, Turton J, Scott F, Sinclair A, Williams A, et al. Two widely disseminated strains of Enterococcus faecalis highly resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003; 52(4): 711-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Kafil HS, Asgharzadeh M. Vancomycin-resistant enteroccus faecium and enterococcus faecalis isolated from education hospital of iran. Maedica (Buchar). 2014; 9(4): 323-7[PubMed]
  • 10. Chow JW, Kak V, You I, Kao SJ, Petrin J, Clewell DB, et al. Aminoglycoside resistance genes aph(2")-Ib and aac(6')-Im detected together in strains of both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001; 45(10): 2691-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Qu TT, Zhang Y, Yu YS, Chen YG, Wei ZQ, Li LJ. [Genotypes of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme and clinical study of high-level gentamycin resistant enterococcus]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006; 35(1): 76-82[PubMed]
  • 12. Rosvoll TC, Lindstad BL, Lunde TM, Hegstad K, Aasnaes B, Hammerum AM, et al. Increased high-level gentamicin resistance in invasive Enterococcus faecium is associated with aac(6')Ie-aph(2'')Ia-encoding transferable megaplasmids hosted by major hospital-adapted lineages. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012; 66(2): 166-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Hindler JF, Stelling J. Analysis and presentation of cumulative antibiograms: a new consensus guideline from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44(6): 867-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Queipo-Ortuno MI, De Dios Colmenero J, Macias M, Bravo MJ, Morata P. Preparation of bacterial DNA template by boiling and effect of immunoglobulin G as an inhibitor in real-time PCR for serum samples from patients with brucellosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008; 15(2): 293-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Rahimi F, Bouzari M, Katouli M, Pourshafie MR. Antibiotic resistance pattern of methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Tehran, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbio. 2013; 6(2): 144-9[DOI]
  • 16. Ferretti JJ, Gilmore KS, Courvalin P. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene specifying the bifunctional 6'-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase 2"-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase enzyme in Streptococcus faecalis and identification and cloning of gene regions specifying the two activities. J Bacteriol. 1986; 167(2): 631-8[PubMed]
  • 17. Vakulenko SB, Donabedian SM, Voskresenskiy AM, Zervos MJ, Lerner SA, Chow JW. Multiplex PCR for detection of aminoglycoside resistance genes in enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003; 47(4): 1423-6[PubMed]
  • 18. Hoseini Zadeh A, Shojapour M, Nazari R, Akbari M, Sofian M, Abtahi H. Genotyping of vancomycin resistant enterococci in arak hospitals. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015; 8(4)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Feizabadi MM, Asadi S, Aliahmadi A, Parvin M, Parastan R, Shayegh M, et al. Drug resistant patterns of enterococci recovered from patients in Tehran during 2000-2003. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004; 24(5): 521-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Winn W, Allen S, Janda W, Koneman E, Procop G, Schreckenberger PC, et al. Gram-positive cocci part II: streptococci, enterococci, and the “streptococcus-like” bacteria. 2006; : 673-764
  • 21. Behnood A, Farajnia S, Moaddab SR, Ahdi-Khosroshahi S, Katayounzadeh A. Prevalence of aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia resistance gene and its linkage to Tn5281 in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from Tabriz hospitals. Iran J Microbiol. 2013; 5(3): 203-8[PubMed]
  • 22. Imanifooladi A, Soltanpour MJ, Kachuei R, Mirnejad R, Rahimi M. The Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of Common Antiseptics against Three Nosocomial Resistant Strains. Med Lab J. 2008; 2(1)
  • 23. Borhani K, Ahmadi A, Rahimi F, Pourshafie MR, Talebi M. Determination of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecium Diversity in Tehran Sewage Using Plasmid Profile, Biochemical Fingerprinting and Antibiotic Resistance. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2014; 7(2)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Aleksandrowicz I. [The incidence of high-level aminoglicoside and high-level beta-lactam resistance among enterococcal strains of various origin]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2012; 64(1): 11-8[PubMed]
  • 25. Leclercq R. Enterococci acquire new kinds of resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 1997; 24 Suppl 1-4[PubMed]
  • 26. Stucki K, Harbarth S, Nendaz M. [Enterococcal infections: from simple to most complex]. Rev Med Suisse. 2014; 10(446): 1918[PubMed]
  • 27. Aslangul E, Ruimy R, Chau F, Garry L, Andremont A, Fantin B. Relationship between the level of acquired resistance to gentamicin and synergism with amoxicillin in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005; 49(10): 4144-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Akhter S, Asna ZH, Rahman MM. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococcus species isolated from clinical specimens. Mymensingh Med J. 2011; 20(4): 694-9[PubMed]
  • 29. Emaneini M, Aligholi M, Aminshahi M. Characterization of glycopeptides, aminoglycosides and macrolide resistance among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from hospitals in Tehran. Pol J Microbiol. 2008; 57(2): 173-8[PubMed]
  • 30. Hasani A, Sharifi Y, Ghotaslou R, Naghili B, Hasani A, Aghazadeh M, et al. Molecular screening of virulence genes in high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in Northwest Iran. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2012; 30(2): 175-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Salem-Bekhit MM, Moussa IMI, Muharram MM, Elsherbini AM, AlRejaie S. Increasing prevalence of high-level gentamicin resistant enterococci: An emerging clinical problem. Afr J Microbiol. 2011; 5(31): 5713-20
  • 32. Watanabe S, Kobayashi N, Quinones D, Nagashima S, Uehara N, Watanabe N. Genetic diversity of enterococci harboring the high-level gentamicin resistance gene aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia or aph(2'')-Ie in a Japanese hospital. Microb Drug Resist. 2009; 15(3): 185-94[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments