Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

Published by: Kowsar

Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation by Animal Bacterial Pathogens

Azizollah Ebrahimi 1 , Majid Hemati 2 , * , Ziba Shabanpour 2 , Saeed Habibian Dehkordi 1 , Shahab Bahadoran 1 , Sharareh Lotfalian 1 and Shahin Khubani 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Sciences, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, IR Iran
2 School of Veterinary Sciences, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, IR Iran
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology: February 2015, 8 (2); e59764
  • Published Online: February 20, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 17, 2013
  • Revised: May 28, 2014
  • Accepted: June 29, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/jjm.16058

To Cite: Ebrahimi A, Hemati M, Shabanpour Z, Habibian Dehkordi S, Bahadoran S, et al. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation by Animal Bacterial Pathogens, Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015 ; 8(2):e59764. doi: 10.5812/jjm.16058.

Abstract
Copyright © 2015, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Howe AD, Forster S, Morton S, Marshall R, Osborn KS, Wright P, et al. Cryptosporidium oocysts in a water supply associated with a cryptosporidiosis outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002; 8(6): 619-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Gilbert P, Das JR, Jones MV, Allison DG. Assessment of resistance towards biocides following the attachment of micro-organisms to, and growth on, surfaces. J Appl Microbiol. 2001; 91(2): 248-54[PubMed]
  • 3. Mah TF, O'Toole GA. Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents. Trends Microbiol. 2001; 9(1): 34-9[PubMed]
  • 4. Sauer K, Camper AK, Ehrlich GD, Costerton JW, Davies DG. Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays multiple phenotypes during development as a biofilm. J Bacteriol. 2002; 184(4): 1140-54[PubMed]
  • 5. Parsek MR, Fuqua C. Biofilms 2003: emerging themes and challenges in studies of surface-associated microbial life. J Bacteriol. 2004; 186(14): 4427-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Zottola EA, Sasahara KC. Microbial biofilms in the food processing industry--should they be a concern? Int J Food Microbiol. 1994; 23(2): 125-48[PubMed]
  • 7. Piriou P, Dukan S, Levi Y, Jamge PA. Prevention of bacterial growth in drinking water distribution systems. Water Sci Technol. 1997; 35(11–12): 283-7[DOI]
  • 8. Potera C. Forging a link between biofilms and disease. Science. 1999; 283(5409): 1837[PubMed]
  • 9. Lambert PA, Hammond SM. Potassium fluxes, first indications of membrane damage in micro-organisms. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1973; 54(2): 796-9[PubMed]
  • 10. Lin GH, Hemming M. Ocular and dermal irritation studies of some quaternary ammonium compounds. Food Chem Toxicol. 1996; 34(2): 177-82[PubMed]
  • 11. Tupker RA, Schuur J, Coenraads PJ. Irritancy of antiseptics tested by repeated open exposures on the human skin, evaluated by non-invasive methods. Contact Dermatitis. 1997; 37(5): 213-7[PubMed]
  • 12. Ebrahimi A, Moatamedi A, Lotfalian S, Mirshokraei P. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran. Vet Res Forum. 2013; 4(4): 269-72[PubMed]
  • 13. Ebrahimi A, Akhavan Taheri M. Characteristics of staphylococci isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis cows in Shahrekord, Iran. Iran J Vet Res. 2009; 10(3): 273-7
  • 14. Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey BK, Carter GR. Clinical veterinary Microbiology. 1994;
  • 15. Stepanovic S, Vukovic D, Hola V, Di Bonaventura G, Djukic S, Cirkovic I, et al. Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci. APMIS. 2007; 115(8): 891-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Houari A, Di Martino P. Effect of chlorhexidine and benzalkonium chloride on bacterial biofilm formation. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007; 45(6): 652-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Machado I, Lopes SP, Sousa AM, Pereira MO. Adaptive response of single and binary Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli biofilms to benzalkonium chloride. J Basic Microbiol. 2012; 52(1): 43-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Pagedar A, Singh J, Batish VK. Adaptation to benzalkonium chloride and ciprofloxacin affects biofilm formation potential, efflux pump and haemolysin activity of Escherichia coli of dairy origin. J Dairy Res. 2012; 79(4): 383-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Hegstad K, Langsrud S, Lunestad BT, Scheie AA, Sunde M, Yazdankhah SP. Does the wide use of quaternary ammonium compounds enhance the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus threaten our health? Microb Drug Resist. 2010; 16(2): 91-104[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Bremer PJ, Monk I, Butler R. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes/Flavobacterium spp. biofilms using chlorine: impact of substrate, pH, time and concentration. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2002; 35(4): 321-5[PubMed]
  • 21. Cloete TE, Jacobs L, Brozel VS. The chemical control of biofouling in industrial water systems. Biodegradation. 1998; 9(1): 23-37[PubMed]
  • 22. Kuda T, Yano T, Kuda MT. Resistances to benzalkonium chloride of bacteria dried with food elements on stainless steel surface. Food Sci Technol. 2008; 41(6): 988-93[DOI]
  • 23. Moretro T, Hermansen L, Holck AL, Sidhu MS, Rudi K, Langsrud S. Biofilm formation and the presence of the intercellular adhesion locus ica among staphylococci from food and food processing environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003; 69(9): 5648-55[PubMed]
  • 24. Galuppo LD, Pascoe JR, Jang SS, Willits NH, Greenman SL. Evaluation of iodophor skin preparation techniques and factors influencing drainage from ventral midline incisions in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999; 215(7): 963-9[PubMed]
  • 25. Melchior MB, Fink-Gremmels J, Gaastra W. Comparative assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in biofilm versus planktonic culture. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006; 53(7): 326-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Witte W, Strommenger B, Stanek C, Cuny C. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in humans and animals, Central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007; 13(2): 255-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. A Kimitsu N, Hamamoto H, Inoue R, Shoji M, Akamine A, Takemori K, et al. Increase in resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams caused by mutations conferring resistance to benzalkonium chloride, a disinfectant widely used in hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999; 43(12): 3042-3[PubMed]
  • 28. Campanac C, Pineau L, Payard A, Baziard-Mouysset G, Roques C. Interactions between biocide cationic agents and bacterial biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002; 46(5): 1469-74[PubMed]
  • 29. Gilbert P, Moore LE. Cationic antiseptics: diversity of action under a common epithet. J Appl Microbiol. 2005; 99(4): 703-15[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Hugo WB, Longworth AR. The effect of chlorhexidine on the electrophoretic mobility, cytoplasmic constituents, dehydrogenase activity and cell walls of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1966; 18(9): 569-78[PubMed]
  • 31. Kawamura-Sato K, Wachino J, Kondo T, Ito H, Arakawa Y. Reduction of disinfectant bactericidal activities in clinically isolated Acinetobacter species in the presence of organic material. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 61(3): 568-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Russell AD. Bacterial resistance to disinfectants: present knowledge and future problems. J Hosp Infect. 1999; 43 Suppl-68[PubMed]
  • 33. Smith K, Hunter IS. Efficacy of common hospital biocides with biofilms of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. J Med Microbiol. 2008; 57: 966-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Mangalappalli-Illathu AK, Vidovic S, Korber DR. Differential adaptive response and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis planktonic and biofilm cells exposed to benzalkonium chloride. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008; 52(10): 3669-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Mangalappalli-Illathu AK, Korber DR. Adaptive resistance and differential protein expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis biofilms exposed to benzalkonium chloride. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50(11): 3588-96[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Romanova NA, Wolffs PF, Brovko LY, Griffiths MW. Role of efflux pumps in adaptation and resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to benzalkonium chloride. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006; 72(5): 3498-503[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments