Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

Published by: Kowsar

Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age With Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran

Mohammad Taghi Akhi 1 , 2 , Sirus Jedari Seifi 2 , Mohammad Asgharzadeh 3 , Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee 2 , Shahram Abdoli Oskuei 4 , Tahereh Pirzadeh 2 , Mohammad Yousef Memar 2 , Naser Alizadeh 2 and Hasan Seifi Yarijan Sofla 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
2 Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
3 Paramedical Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
4 Department of Pediatrics, Tabriz Children’s Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology: June 01, 2016, 9 (6); e32163
  • Published Online: May 31, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: August 8, 2015
  • Revised: April 4, 2016
  • Accepted: April 27, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/jjm.32163

To Cite: Akhi M T, Jedari Seifi S, Asgharzadeh M, Ahangarzadeh Rezaee M, Abdoli Oskuei S, et al. Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age With Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran, Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2016 ; 9(6):e32163. doi: 10.5812/jjm.32163.

Copyright © 2016, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Moyo SJ, Gro N, Matee MI, Kitundu J, Myrmel H, Mylvaganam H, et al. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Pediatr. 2011; 11: 19[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Jin D, Chen C, Li L, Lu S, Li Z, Zhou Z, et al. Dynamics of fecal microbial communities in children with diarrhea of unknown etiology and genomic analysis of associated Streptococcus lutetiensis. BMC Microbiol. 2013; 13: 141[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Bonkoungou IJ, Haukka K, Osterblad M, Hakanen AJ, Traore AS, Barro N, et al. Bacterial and viral etiology of childhood diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. BMC Pediatr. 2013; 13: 36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Caceres M, Zhang G, Weintraub A, Nord CE. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children with Diarrhoea in Nicaragua. Anaerobe. 2000; 6(3): 143-8[DOI]
  • 5. Marcos LA, DuPont HL. Advances in defining etiology and new therapeutic approaches in acute diarrhea. J Infect. 2007; 55(5): 385-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Vu Nguyen T, Le Van P, Le Huy C, Nguyen Gia K, Weintraub A. Etiology and epidemiology of diarrhea in children in Hanoi, Vietnam. Int J Infect Dis. 2006; 10(4): 298-308[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Akhi MT, Shirinzadeh M, Ghotaslou R, Sorous MH, Pirzadeh T, Naghavi Behzad M. Determination of Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacteroid fragilis Isolated from Patients and Healthy Individuals in Imam Reza Center of Medical Teaching and Treatment-Tabriz. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013; 6(9)[DOI]
  • 8. Rodrigues C, Siciliano RF, Zeigler R, Strabelli TM. Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis: a case report and review of literature. Braz J Infect Dis. 2012; 16(1): 100-4[PubMed]
  • 9. Sack RB, Albert MJ, Alam K, Neogi PK, Akbar MS. Isolation of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis from Bangladeshi children with diarrhea: a controlled study. J Clin Microbiol. 1994; 32(4): 960-3[PubMed]
  • 10. Merino VR, Nakano V, Liu C, Song Y, Finegold SM, Avila-Campos MJ. Quantitative detection of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis subtypes isolated from children with and without diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 2011; 49(1): 416-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Prindiville TP, Sheikh RA, Cohen SH, Tang YJ, Cantrell MC, Silva JJ. Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin gene sequences in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000; 6(2): 171-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Bressane MA, Durigon LE, Avila-Campos MJ. Prevalence of the Bacteroides fragilis Group and Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Immunodeficient Children. Anaerobe. 2001; 7(5): 277-81[DOI]
  • 13. Casburn-Jones AC, Farthing MJ. Management of infectious diarrhoea. Gut. 2004; 53(2): 296-305[PubMed]
  • 14. Oteo J, Aracil B, Alos JI, Gomez-Garces JL. High prevalence of resistance to clindamycin in Bacteroides fragilis group isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000; 45(5): 691-3[PubMed]
  • 15. Hartmeyer GN, Soki J, Nagy E, Justesen US. Multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis group on the rise in Europe? J Med Microbiol. 2012; 61: 1784-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Nakano V, Nascimento e Silva A, Merino VR, Wexler HM, Avila-Campos MJ. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of resistance genes in intestinal Bacteroidales strains. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011; 66(4): 543-7[PubMed]
  • 17. Chaudhary M. Emerging Metronidazole Resistance in Anaerobes and Mapping Their Susceptibility Behaviour. Am J Infect Dis. 2014; 10(2): 56-63[DOI]
  • 18. Nkwengulila G, Ngoso BE, Namkinga LA. Identification of Pathogenic Intestinal Parasitic Protozoa Associated with Diarrhea among Under-fives Children in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. IIJMMS. 2015; 2(4): 49-55
  • 19. Connie R, Mahon D, Lehman C, Manuselis G. Textbook of diagnostic microbiology. 2011; : 502-37
  • 20. Dusetty P, Velazquez FR, Gutierrez-Escolano AL, Ludert JE. Evaluation of the second generation of a commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of rotavirus antigens in fecal samples. J Clin Virol. 2013; 57(1): 88-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: Approved Standard. 2004;
  • 22. Asgharzadeh M, Kafil HS, Khakpour M. Comparison of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat and IS6110-RFLP methods in identifying epidemiological links in patients with tuberculosis in Northwest of Iran. Ann Microbiol. 2008; 58(2): 333-9[DOI]
  • 23. Akhi MT, Ghotaslou R, Shirinzadeh M, Pirzadeh T, Naghavi Behzad M. Comparison of E test and Disk Diffusion Test for Antibiotic Resistance Testing of Enterotoxigenic and Non- Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis Isolated From Stools. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013; 6(5)[DOI]
  • 24. Albert MJ, Faruque AS, Faruque SM, Sack RB, Mahalanabis D. Case-control study of enteropathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol. 1999; 37(11): 3458-64[PubMed]
  • 25. Jiang ZD, Dupont HL, Brown EL, Nandy RK, Ramamurthy T, Sinha A, et al. Microbial etiology of travelers' diarrhea in Mexico, Guatemala, and India: importance of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis and Arcobacter species. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48(4): 1417-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Niyogi SK, Dutta P, Mitra U, Pal DK. Association of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis with childhood diarrhoea. Indian J Med Res. 1997; 105: 167-9[PubMed]
  • 27. Durmaz B, Dalgalar M, Durmaz R. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in patients with diarrhea: a controlled study. Anaerobe. 2005; 11(6): 318-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Gal M, Brazier JS. Metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides spp. carrying nim genes and the selection of slow-growing metronidazole-resistant mutants. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004; 54(1): 109-16[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Seifert H, Dalhoff A, Prisma Study Group . German multicentre survey of the antibiotic susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group and Prevotella species isolated from intra-abdominal infections: results from the PRISMA study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010; 65(11): 2405-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Trevino M, Areses P, Penalver MD, Cortizo S, Pardo F, del Molino ML, et al. Susceptibility trends of Bacteroides fragilis group and characterisation of carbapenemase-producing strains by automated REP-PCR and MALDI TOF. Anaerobe. 2012; 18(1): 37-43[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Hecht DW. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria: worrisome developments. Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 39(1): 92-7[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments