Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

Published by: Kowsar

The Prevalence of Pneumocystis jiroveci in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Lung Transplant Recipients Examined by the Nested PCR

Morteza Izadi 1 , Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari 1 , Javid Sadraei 2 , Abbas Mahmoodzadeh Poornaki 3 , Babak Rezavand 3 , * , Hossein Zarrinfar 4 , Jahangir Abdi 5 and Younes Mohammadi 6
Authors Information
1 Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Parasitology Department of Medical School, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan,IR Iran
4 Allergy Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
5 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran
6 Department of Epidemiology & Bio-statistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology: December 01, 2014, 7 (12); e13518
  • Published Online: December 1, 2014
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: August 11, 2013
  • Revised: November 11, 2013
  • Accepted: February 11, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/jjm.13518

To Cite: Izadi M, Jonaidi Jafari N, Sadraei J, Mahmoodzadeh Poornaki A, Rezavand B, et al. The Prevalence of Pneumocystis jiroveci in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Lung Transplant Recipients Examined by the Nested PCR, Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2014 ; 7(12):e13518. doi: 10.5812/jjm.13518.

Copyright © 2014, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Patel N, Koziel H. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in adult patients with AIDS: treatment strategies and emerging challenges to antimicrobial therapy. Treat Respir Med. 2004; 3(6): 381-97[PubMed]
  • 2. Kelly MN, Shellito JE. Current understanding of Pneumocystis immunology. Future Microbiol. 2010; 5(1): 43-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Azoulay E, Bergeron A, Chevret S, Bele N, Schlemmer B, Menotti J. Polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates. Chest. 2009; 135(3): 655-61[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Cregan P, Yamamoto A, Lum A, VanDerHeide T, MacDonald M, Pulliam L. Comparison of four methods for rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in respiratory specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1990; 28(11): 2432-6[PubMed]
  • 5. Carmona EM, Limper AH. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2011; 5(1): 41-59[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Pinlaor S, Mootsikapun P, Pinlaor P, Phunmanee A, Pipitgool V, Sithithaworn P, et al. PCR diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii on sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples in immuno-compromised patients. Parasitol Res. 2004; 94(3): 213-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Thomas CF, Jr, Limper AH. Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350(24): 2487-98[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Beard CB, Navin TR. Molecular epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996; 2(2): 147-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Broumand B. Transplantation activities in Iran. Exp Clin Transplant. 2005; 3(1): 333-7[PubMed]
  • 10. Alexander BD, Tapson VF. Infectious complications of lung transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2001; 3(3): 128-37[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Grossi P, Farina C, Fiocchi R, Dalla Gasperina D. Prevalence and outcome of invasive fungal infections in 1,963 thoracic organ transplant recipients: a multicenter retrospective study. Italian Study Group of Fungal Infections in Thoracic Organ Transplant Recipients. Transplantation. 2000; 70(1): 112-6[PubMed]
  • 12. Govender S, Du Plessis SJ, Ocana GS, Chalkley LJ. Prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in patients presenting with pneumonia at hospitals in Port Elizabeth: original research. South Afr J Epidemiol Infect. 2008; 23(2): 21-4
  • 13. Wakefield AE, Pixley FJ, Banerji S, Sinclair K, Miller RF, Moxon ER, et al. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii with DNA amplification. Lancet. 1990; 336(8713): 451-3[PubMed]
  • 14. Wakefield AE, Pixley FJ, Banerji S, Sinclair K, Miller RF, Moxon ER, et al. Amplification of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA sequences from Pneumocystis carinii DNA of rat and human origin. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1990; 43(1): 69-76[PubMed]
  • 15. Sheikholeslami FM, Sadraei J, Farnia P, Forozandeh M, Kochak HE. Rate of Pneumocystis pneumonia in Iranian HIV+ Patients with Pulmonary Infiltrates. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013; 6(3): 295-300
  • 16. Gleichmann E, Kimber I, Purchase IF. Immunotoxicology: suppressive and stimulatory effects of drugs and environmental chemicals on the immune system. A discussion. Arch Toxicol. 1989; 63(4): 257-73[PubMed]
  • 17. Ehrke MJ, Mihich E, Berd D, Mastrangelo MJ. Effects of anticancer drugs on the immune system in humans. Semin Oncol. 1989; 16(3): 230-53[PubMed]
  • 18. Vahid B, Bibbo M, Marik PE. Role of CD8 lymphocytes and neutrophilic alveolitis in Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007; 39(6-7): 612-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Icenhour CR, Rebholz SL, Collins MS, Cushion MT. Early acquisition of Pneumocystis carinii in neonatal rats as evidenced by PCR and oral swabs. Eukaryot Cell. 2002; 1(3): 414-9[PubMed]
  • 20. Post C, Dutz W, Nasarian I. Endemic Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in South Iran. Arch Dis Child. 1964; 39: 35-40[PubMed]
  • 21. Post C, Fakouhi T, Dutz W, Bandarizadeh B, Kohout EE. Prophylaxis of epidemic infantile pneumocystosis with a 20:1 sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine combination. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1971; 13(5): 273-9[PubMed]
  • 22. Masur H, Ognibene FP, Yarchoan R, Shelhamer JH, Baird BF, Travis W, et al. CD4 counts as predictors of opportunistic pneumonias in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med. 1989; 111(3): 223-31[PubMed]
  • 23. Strategies for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Pneumocystis carinii. : 551-71
  • 24. Struijk GH, Gijsen AF, Yong SL, Zwinderman AH, Geerlings SE, Lettinga KD, et al. Risk of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients long after renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011; 26(10): 3391-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Medrano FJ, Montes-Cano M, Conde M, de la Horra C, Respaldiza N, Gasch A, et al. Pneumocystis jirovecii in general population. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005; 11(2): 245-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Maskell NA, Waine DJ, Lindley A, Pepperell JC, Wakefield AE, Miller RF, et al. Asymptomatic carriage of Pneumocystis jiroveci in subjects undergoing bronchoscopy: a prospective study. Thorax. 2003; 58(7): 594-7[PubMed]
  • 27. Rabodonirina M, Vanhems P, Couray-Targe S, Gillibert RP, Ganne C, Nizard N, et al. Molecular evidence of interhuman transmission of Pneumocystis pneumonia among renal transplant recipients hospitalized with HIV-infected patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 10(10): 1766-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Fishman JA. Prevention of infection caused by Pneumocystis carinii in transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 33(8): 1397-405[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Rezavand B, Hosseini MJ, Izadi M, Mahmoodzadeh Poornaki A,, Sadraei J, Einollahi B, et al. Lethal Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia 24 Years After Kidney Transplantation Nephrourol Mon. 2014; 6(2)
  • 30. Khodadadi H, Mirhendi H, Mohebali M, Kordbacheh P, Zarrinfar H, Makimura K. Pneumocystis jirovecii Colonization in Non-HIV-Infected Patients Based on Nested-PCR Detection in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples. Iran J Public Health. 2013; 42(3): 298-305[PubMed]
  • 31. Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ. PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. 1990; : 482
  • 32. Miller RF, Ambrose HE, Wakefield AE. Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis DNA in immunocompetent health care workers in contact with patients with P. carinii pneumonia. J Clin Microbiol. 2001; 39(11): 3877-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Bartlett MS, Vermund SH, Jacobs R, Durant PJ, Shaw MM, Smith JW, et al. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA in air samples: likely environmental risk to susceptible persons. J Clin Microbiol. 1997; 35(10): 2511-3[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments