Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

Published by: Kowsar

Contemplating the Importance of Toll-like Receptors I and II Regarding Human Viral Pathogenesis

Umar Saeed 1 , * , Sobia Mazoor 1 , Nasir Jalal 1 and Zahra Zahid Piracha 1
Authors Information
1 Attaur Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology: January 01, 2015, 8 (1); e13348
  • Published Online: December 6, 2014
  • Article Type: Brief Report
  • Received: July 2, 2013
  • Revised: March 29, 2014
  • Accepted: July 26, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/jjm.13348

To Cite: Saeed U, Mazoor S, Jalal N, Zahid Piracha Z. Contemplating the Importance of Toll-like Receptors I and II Regarding Human Viral Pathogenesis, Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015 ; 8(1):e13348. doi: 10.5812/jjm.13348.

Abstract
Copyright © 2014, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Footnote
References
  • 1. Saeed U, Waheed Y, Ashraf M. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a review of viral genomes, viral induced host immune responses, genotypic distributions and worldwide epidemiology. Asian Pacific J Tropic dis. 2014; 4(2): 88-96[DOI]
  • 2. Saeed U, Waheed Y, Manzoor S, Ashraf M. Identification of novel silent HIV propagation routes in Pakistan. World J Virol. 2013; 2(3): 136-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Piracha ZZ, Saeed U, Khursheed A, Chauhdry WN. Isolation and Partial Characterization of Virulent Phage Specific against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Global J Med Res. 2014; 14(1): 1-9
  • 4. Saeed U, Jalal N. Orange juice: a natural remedy for treatment of Cancer, prevention of chronic inflammation, Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. JPHBS. 2013; 2: 183-4
  • 5. Saeed U, Nawaz N, Waheed Y, Chaudry N, Bhatti HT, Urooj S. n silico identification of BIM-1 (2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) as a potential therapeutic agent against elevated protein kinase C beta associated diseases. . African J Biotech. 2012; 11(19): 4434-41
  • 6. Saeed U, Waheed Y, Anwar A, Hussain T, Naeem K, Nawaz N. In-Silico Binding of ATP to Protein Kinase C Delta: Insights into the Structure and Active Site. Europ J Sci Res. 2011; 52: 177-87
  • 7. Saeed U,, Jalal N,, Ashraf M. Roles of Cyclin Dependent Kinase and Cdk- Activating Kinase in Cell Cycle Regulation: Contemplation of Intracellular Interactions and Functional Characterization. GJMR. 2012; 12: 47-52
  • 8. Saeed U, Waheed Y, Anwar A, Ashraf M. Structural Characterization of Cytochrome P450 1A2; Insights into Insilico Inhibition via Alpha- naphthoflavone. Arch des Sci. 2013; 66-50
  • 9. Imran M, Waheed Y, Manzoor S, Bilal M, Ashraf W, Ali M, et al. Interaction of Hepatitis C virus proteins with pattern recognition receptors. Virol J. 2012; 9: 126[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA, Jr.. A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature. 1997; 388(6640): 394-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Carty M, Bowie AG. Recent insights into the role of Toll-like receptors in viral infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010; 161(3): 397-406[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Innate immunity to virus infection. Immunol Rev. 2009; 227(1): 75-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Nomura N, Miyajima N, Sazuka T, Tanaka A, Kawarabayasi Y, Sato S, et al. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. I. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0001-KIAA0040) deduced by analysis of randomly sampled cDNA clones from human immature myeloid cell line KG-1. DNA Res. 1994; 1(1): 27-35[PubMed]
  • 14. Gay NJ, Keith FJ. Drosophila Toll and IL-1 receptor. Nature. 1991; 351(6325): 355-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) is a comprehensive resource for protein sequence and annotation data. 2014;
  • 16. Jin MS, Kim SE, Heo JY, Lee ME, Kim HM, Paik SG, et al. Crystal structure of the TLR1-TLR2 heterodimer induced by binding of a tri-acylated lipopeptide. Cell. 2007; 130(6): 1071-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Kumar H, Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009; 388(4): 621-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Daley D, Park JE, He JQ, Yan J, Akhabir L, Stefanowicz D, et al. Associations and interactions of genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity genes with early viral infections and susceptibility to asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012; 130(6): 1284-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Chang S, Dolganiuc A, Szabo G. Toll-like receptors 1 and 6 are involved in TLR2-mediated macrophage activation by hepatitis C virus core and NS3 proteins. J Leukoc Biol. 2007; 82(3): 479-87[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Qi LH, Wang Y, Gao F, Zhang C, Ding SF, Ni M, et al. Enhanced stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice by combinatorial Toll-like receptor-1 and -2 gene silencing. Hum Gene Ther. 2009; 20(7): 739-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Meylan E, Tschopp J. Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviral responses. Mol Cell. 2006; 22(5): 561-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. The instructive role of dendritic cells on T-cell responses. Arthritis Res. 2002; 4 Suppl 3-32[PubMed]
  • 23. Juckem LK, Boehme KW, Feire AL, Compton T. Differential initiation of innate immune responses induced by human cytomegalovirus entry into fibroblast cells. J Immunol. 2008; 180(7): 4965-77[PubMed]
  • 24. Gaudreault E, Fiola S, Olivier M, Gosselin J. Epstein-Barr virus induces MCP-1 secretion by human monocytes via TLR2. J Virol. 2007; 81(15): 8016-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Zhou S, Halle A, Kurt-Jones EA, Cerny AM, Porpiglia E, Rogers M, et al. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of CNS glial cells results in TLR2-MyD88/Mal-dependent inflammatory responses. J Neuroimmunol. 2008; 194(1-2): 70-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Sorensen LN, Reinert LS, Malmgaard L, Bartholdy C, Thomsen AR, Paludan SR. TLR2 and TLR9 synergistically control herpes simplex virus infection in the brain. J Immunol. 2008; 181(12): 8604-12[PubMed]
  • 27. Heggelund L, Muller F, Lien E, Yndestad A, Ueland T, Kristiansen KI, et al. Increased expression of toll-like receptor 2 on monocytes in HIV infection: possible roles in inflammation and viral replication. Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 39(2): 264-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Hernandez JC, Stevenson M, Latz E, Urcuqui-Inchima S. HIV type 1 infection up-regulates TLR2 and TLR4 expression and function in vivo and in vitro. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012; 28(10): 1313-28[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Tan AC, Mifsud EJ, Zeng W, Edenborough K, McVernon J, Brown LE, et al. Intranasal administration of the TLR2 agonist Pam2Cys provides rapid protection against influenza in mice. Mol Pharm. 2012; 9(9): 2710-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Durantel D, Zoulim F. Interplay between hepatitis B virus and TLR2-mediated innate immune responses: can restoration of TLR2 functions be a new therapeutic option? J Hepatol. 2012; 57(3): 486-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Cuevas CD, Lavanya M, Wang E, Ross SR. Junin virus infects mouse cells and induces innate immune responses. J Virol. 2011; 85(21): 11058-68[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Murawski MR, Bowen GN, Cerny AM, Anderson LJ, Haynes LM, Tripp RA, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus activates innate immunity through Toll-like receptor 2. J Virol. 2009; 83(3): 1492-500[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Zhu J, Martinez J, Huang X, Yang Y. Innate immunity against vaccinia virus is mediated by TLR2 and requires TLR-independent production of IFN-beta. Blood. 2007; 109(2): 619-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Dolganiuc A, Chang S, Kodys K, Mandrekar P, Bakis G, Cormier M, et al. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Core Protein-Induced, Monocyte-Mediated Mechanisms of Reduced IFN-  and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Loss in Chronic HCV Infection. J Immunol. 2006; 177(10): 6758-68[DOI]
  • 35. Chung H, Watanabe T, Kudo M, Chiba T. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces homotolerance and cross-tolerance to Toll-like receptor ligands by activation of Toll-like receptor 2. J Infect Dis. 2010; 202(6): 853-61[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments